Teachers assign students to publish papers on police cruelty permit them investigate ways to avoid future misconduct acts. The importance of college education can be determined by the role it plays in life. Plato s Apology Essay words - 5 pages Plato s overall aim in The Apology is to show that Socrates was the best, and wisest, and most righteous man of his time.
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Plato, through his Apology, secured the acquittal of Socrates in the Court of Time. The Court of Time is the judgment of history Blood reports will also be matched with the final results, confirming the diagnosis of the disease. If there s a saying The pen is mightier than the sword, then I say that The tongue is mightier than the Language and speech has often been used to influence the thoughts of man to a great extent His early desire for my education has reflected without any help dedication to learning, in some ways enabling me to look for and achieve excellence.
Socrates and the Apology Socrates and Death in the Apology In The Apology, Socrates contrasts his ability to address the crowd against more skillful speakers stating that he offers truth over eloquence 17b. In essence, he infers that others use the power of persuasion and slick words to sway others vs. The truth Another benefit of reading Shakespeare's works is the fact that readers learn valuable moral lessons. I was disturbed because how can one person be jailed and sentenced to death because of his beliefs. It is the will of the many exercised in defense of the honor of the individual citizen who might be incapable of holding his own against a powerful and arrogant man.
Moreover, Socrates denies the central, if unofficial, role of the court as an agent of social control. Socrates claims that the only legitimate approach for a juror who would not impiously foreswear himself was to judge the matter at hand against a fixed standard of justice. While most jurors no doubt regarded justice as a paramount concern, they defined justice as the good of the democratic polis.
And that standing was demonstrated, in part, by his integration into a network of kin and friends. Not so. It is true I have been convicted for a lack; not a lack of words, but lack of bold shamelessness, unwillingness to say the things that you would find it most pleasant hedista to hear—lamenting and wailing, saying and doing many things I claim to be unworthy of me, but things of the sort you are accustomed to hear from others. I did not then think it necessary to do anything unworthy of a free man aneleutheron because of danger; I do not now regret so having conducted my defense; and I would far rather die with that defense than live with the other.
Thus, he suggests, the prudent response to Socratic criticism is not to kill the one gentle critic they now have, but to take care to make themselves into better people 39c-d. That is, each Athenian must abandon his illogical, ideological, democratic convictions and seek to find better, more logically consistent alternatives. Although Socrates doubted his own ability to persuade his judges, we must suppose that because he did address the jury rather than keeping a dignified silence he kept open the possibility that he might succeed in educating some or all of them.
Free Essay Sample / Example - Philosophy: Plato, Socrates | philosophy paper | homework, report
If Socrates had been convinced that his fellow citizens were ineducable, if he had been concerned only with improving his own soul, he would have had nothing to say at a public trial. The fact that Socrates did offer a defense proves that he sought to improve his polis : proves that Socrates was, in short, both a philosophical social critic and a citizen. The Apology presents Socrates as a highly patriotic citizen who attempted to improve his fellows through beneficial provocation and criticism of popular ideas. Socrates avoided addressing the Assembly , but he carried out his critical obligations in public places as well as in private houses.
The trial speech itself represents a sincere attempt to employ public rhetoric for the purposes of mass education. But, in stark contrast to what we moderns have come to accept as the standard prison-escape plot, Socrates refuses to move unless Crito can prove that escaping prison would be a just thing to do. Since escape would constitute a harm, it is unjust, and so the substantive question has been settled just a few minutes into the dialogue. Demosthenes Dem. The Laws as imagined by Socrates initially posit that escape constitutes injury because it meant breaking the law and the polis cannot continue to exist if the laws are without force 50a-b.
Socrates asks Crito : how we are to answer that one? The mention of the political orator is interesting.
- A Response Paper to The Apology of Socrates.
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It signals that while Socrates and democratic politicians both believe that laws and judgments must be authoritative, they approach the matter quite differently. What then might an Athenian orator have said in favor of the democratic approach? In his speech Against Meidias , written in B. Demosthenes assumes that powerful men will always desire to demonstrate their power by harming the weak, and he does not consider the possibility that they would be restrained by any internal concern for abstract justice.
Nor are the laws themselves, mere inscribed letters, capable of guaranteeing compliance. Rather, the appropriate insurance of legal authority is the collective action of the citizenry: the legal judgment and its consequences. Vigorous public punishment of outrageous behavior will serve to intimidate the powerful and will force them into compliance with the will of the many.
It is only when the people are unwilling to use their collective power to restrain the powerful that the law will lose its authority. Although Demosthenes was not yet born in B. Thus, maintaining the rule of law is for Socrates an issue of ethics not politics, and it depends upon the behavior of the individual not upon that of the collectivity. The basis of the Socratic legal order is a just contract between the Laws and the individual citizen.
According to the terms of that contract, Socrates had agreed to abide by the procedural forms of Athenian law and to obey the legal judgments rendered according to the procedural rules, even though those judgments might be substantively incorrect. His obedience was given in exchange for having received from the Laws specific goods: his birth because of the laws regarding marriage , his nurture trophe , and his education paideia.
Can you then say, first of all, that you are not our offspring and our slave—you and your ancestors before you? Socrates has already explained that he cannot ethically do anything substantively harmful to any entity. In this passage the Laws demonstrate that for any citizen to break the law is manifestly to do harm to an entity that deserves special respect and gratitude.
And thus, by escaping, Socrates who, in the Apology , had publicly announced his moral superiority, would sink beneath the ethical standard demanded of hoi polloi. Plot on a Map Sparta. The demonstration that it is unjust for any citizen to disobey legal judgments that were procedurally correct whether or not they are substantially correct is now complete, but the Laws go on to make an a fortiori argument regarding Socrates himself, which slides into an overtly rhetorical appeal.
Essay about Socrates in The Apology, by Plato
Socrates , say the Laws, affirmed the contract more than anyone else, since he absented himself from the polis less than anyone, and thus he should feel particular shame aischune in breaking it. He did not even desire to gain first-hand knowledge of other poleis and their laws 52b , although he often asserted that Sparta and Crete were well governed 52e. He will degrade himself by sneaking out of town dressed like a runaway slave and will live a slavish existence in foreign parts where he will amuse his audiences with the absurd tale of his clandestine flight in peasant costume.
If he brings his children with him, they will be raised and educated as non-Athenians 54a. They assure him that if he obeys the Laws, Socrates will die the victim of injustice at the hands of fallible men i. Be assured that if you speak against the things that now seem to me to be so ta nun emoi dokounta , you will speak in vain. Not surprisingly, Crito has no reply and so the Laws carry the day. These principles were hypothetical, but the aspiring philosopher would be expected to follow them unless and until he refuted them by logical argument. Socrates attempts to do good for his fellow citizens because he believes that has both a duty and a capacity to do so.
It is further demonstrated by the contractual argument of the Laws in the Crito. He imagines that his critical sting really can awaken at least some Athenians and he refuses to regard anyone as ineducable. His conviction that he had a duty and a capacity to improve others was or at least Plato supposed it was why the real, historical Socrates chose to defend himself before the mass audience of Athenian jurors in He did not allow his private estate to fall into ruin in the philanthropic pursuit of the betterment of Athens , nor did he haunt the public square seeking philosophical conversations with passers-by.
Instead, he withdrew to his private think-tank, the Academy , where he conversed with a few carefully chosen students, most of them non-citizens.
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He was not perceived as a public figure, as Socrates had been, and never had trouble with Athenian law. I would suggest that he did, and that the refutation is to be found in the great dialogues Gorgias and the Republic. The Gorgias centers on matters of ethics, political justice, and the problematic role of persuasion in the political life of the polis. The bulk of the dialogue consists of a long interchange between Socrates and Callicles —a politically ambitious Athenian citizen who is studying with the rhetoric-teacher Gorgias.
Callicles believes that mastery of rhetoric will make him a powerful man and assure him personal security against any threats to his person or his standing. Callicles scorns Socrates for failing to avail himself of the powerful weapons afforded by the art of public speaking.
He claims that Socrates would be incapable of protecting himself if someone sought to do him harm. In response, Socrates seeks to show Callicles that the power and security associated with rhetorical skill is illusory, and that in fact rhetorical skill ends in nothing other than the enslavement of the speaker to the whims of his audience: For Socrates , anyone who seeks to persuade a mob ends up being nothing more than the unwitting tool of the passions of the mob.
Those who willingly engage in battle, rather than spending their time in preparing the means of personal security, risk their lives. Callicles warns Socrates that he is overconfident about his chances of survival. And so he will suffer whatever comes his way b-c. This passage presents a problem, because it seems to contradict the account of the Apology , in which Socrates has a good deal to say to the Athenians, and specifically on on the subject of the benefits he has done them.
Leaving aside the insoluble question of what the real Socrates really said on that day in B.
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