Invalid email address. Please re-enter. You must select a newsletter to subscribe to. Sign Up. You will receive emails containing news content , updates and promotions from The New York Times. You may opt-out at any time. You agree to receive occasional updates and special offers for The New York Times's products and services. Thank you for subscribing. An error has occurred. The workers are heavily underpaid which shows the major unjust issues when it comes to labor in the diamond industry. Diamonds: A Symbolism of Blood or Regality? It is true that diamonds is what every girl desires for.
This is known as blood diamond or conflict diamond. A blood diamond is a diamond. Often used as a beautiful, symbol of love and commitment between two lovers. These are used as a representation of taking that final, everlasting step into eternal happiness with one another before committing to marriage.
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Diamonds have been a valued and highly revered commodity to consumers all over the world. Unfortunately there is a dark, sordid history and a lot of bloodshed that is attached to these pretty, little rocks. The first known discovery of this natural resource was in India.
This is a very powerful quote from someone who has and is experiencing Gerund firsthand the gruesome terror of the conflict over diamonds in Africa. This war has started because of the greed for money and power in the abundant diamond industry in the different parts of Africa by the R. In Sierra Leone alone, about 20, innocent people have suffered bodily mutilation, 75, people have been killed, and around 2,, people have fled Sierra Leone because of the genocide, or …show more content….
United Nations 1. Early in , the R. C waged war with the R. Brown 1.
Free blood diamonds Essays and Papers
Journal of Development Studies , 9 3 : — Some artisanal mining booms have also been demonstrated to follow rather than precede economic recession, and to stabilize the economy, thereby reversing the resource curse argument and providing a valuable source of income for the poorest Heemskerk Heemskerk, M. Do international commodity prices drive natural resource booms?
An empirical analysis of small-scale gold mining in Suriname. Ecological Economics , — The desperation of populations facing failed and oppressive agrarian or urban institutions and economies should thus be acknowledged, notably domestic and colonial legacies of servitude and humiliation in agrarian spaces shaping hopes of emancipation in the mining fields De Boeck De Boeck, F.
To fight or to farm? African Affairs , — Second, there is a need to refine the link between weak taxation and political vulnerability to conflicts. Lack of fiscal access to diamond revenues due to artisanal exploitation should leave the state less capable of carrying out its role of public service provision, including social services, public infrastructure, and regulatory functions. Low state capacity can in turn reduce political legitimacy and increase vulnerability to conflicts.
Some empirical evidence suggests that primary deposits are less frequently associated with civil wars than secondary deposits open to artisanal mining Lujala, Gleditsch, and Gilmore Lujala, P.
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Moreover, there is some evidence that private industry expropriation in the diamond sector can aggravate resource curse effects Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson Acemoglu, D. Rethinking the resource curse: Ownerships structure, institutional capacity, and domestic constraints.
Annual Review of Political Sciences , 9: — In this perspective, Botswana's political stability is often presented as the result of its sound public—private joint venture industrial exploitation and budgetary allocation of rich primary diamond deposits Dunning Dunning, T. Resource dependence, economic performance, and political stability.
Note: Cumulated industrial and artisanal productions and estimated smuggled exports. Smuggled diamonds have generally higher value per volume. Smuggling by value might have reached two-thirds of official production in the mids, and grew from about three times to nearly the entire official production between the late s and the late s. Source: Saylor Saylor, R. Figure 3 Diamond production in Sierra Leone, — Privileging industrial over artisanal mining has significant political consequences.
Compared to artisanal exploitation, industrialization concentrates power in the hands of the state, undermining state accountability to a population made more dependent on state handouts and heightening societal vulnerability to state-level failures. The choice between industrial and artisanal also entails balancing fiscal revenue and direct employment opportunities with consequences for political capacity and domestic political legitimacy.
This choice also reflects the preferences of foreign extractive companies and their home governments seeking to foster their industrial ventures. Sovereign excesses? Portraying postcolonial sovereigntyscapes. Political Geography , 22 2 : — Industrialization might provide domestic rulers with external allies, but it might also attract competing mining interests seeking to undermine production or gain access to mineral rights through political destabilization, not to mention companies disinvesting and sabotaging their own operations when faced with increased demands by states Lanning and Mueller Lanning, G.
To conclude, there is little conclusive evidence for a diamond curse based on a general conception of diamond wealth, or when its three main dimensions—dependence, abundance, and mode of production—are examined in isolation.
Yet an assessment of the combined effects of these three dimensions yields more support for the claim of resource curse. This pattern is largely confirmed by examining the characteristics of these countries in the year preceding the start of hostilities see United States Geological Survey [USGS] Minerals Yearbooks for , , , and Exceptions are Liberia, with lower diamond abundance; Namibia, with industrial exploitation; and Angola, whose diamond sector was still largely dominated by industrial exploitation until the early s.
View all notes This approach posits that countries with such characteristics are more vulnerable to armed conflict. Botswana and Sierra Leone provide illustrations of these arguments and qualifications about forms of violence. Sierra Leone's diamonds were first exploited in the mid s under a British colonial regime, while exploitation in Botswana started in the s under a joint venture between the independent government and De Beers Hall Hall, P.
Diamonds in Sierra Leone were located in mostly secondary deposits open to artisanal exploitation, rather than exclusively in primary deposits as in Botswana. Whereas Botswana's diamond dependence was higher, labor allocation to mining was minimal compared to Sierra Leone due to industrial exploitation.
All three dimensions—abundance, dependence, and mode of exploitation—thus affected state capacity, most notably through fiscal returns and linkages. The late discovery of diamonds, a postindependence context, and diamond abundance meant that Botswana could bargain harder with foreign investors.
In turn, this allowed the government of Botswana to provide greater public services and infrastructures, which in part compensated for the lack of direct access to diamond reserves that, unlike in Sierra Leone, did not require as much political manipulation and coercive policing due to necessarily industrial exploitation of primary deposits. Having allegedly beaten the resource curse Sarraf and Moortaza Sarraf, M.
Botswana did experience some resource curse effects as a result of its high diamond dependence Love Love, R. Drought, Dutch disease and controlled transition in Botswana agriculture. Journal of Southern African Studies , 20 1 : 71 — If Botswana has, so far, avoided the scourge of war, it has been ruled by the same party since independence in , and much of its population has endured structural forms of violence leaving the country with the second highest levels of income inequality and second lowest life expectancy in the world Taylor Taylor, I.
As good as it gets? Journal of Contemporary African Studies , 21 2 : — Resource dependency and its consequences: The costs of Botswana's shining gems.
Diamonds are Forever, Wars are Not. Is Conflict Bad for Private Firms?
Journal of Contemporary African Studies , 23 1 : 27 — Sierra Leone's diamond curse has been particularly deleterious Reno Reno, W. The geopolitics of conflict and diamonds in Sierra Leone. Geopolitics , 9 1 : — Conflict and collusion in Sierra Leone , Oxford, U. Political power in Sierra Leone has long been maintained through predatory institutions, based on a colonial system of indirect rule that increased the power of customary chiefs.
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